Thursday, July 29, 2010

How to allow authors to auto-publish in Joomla 1.5.x

How to allow authors to auto-publish in Joomla 1.5.x ? This can be achieved using third party components or modules such as ja submit or content submit. But i've got some little trick here to make our registered users or authors can publish the contents to our website without administrator approval.

The hack for Joomla 1.5.X is to change the following two files, note that the hack has to be applied to any future upgrade of the core.


For the first comment out some lines around 229 as follows to stop the wrong message coming up on save:

// if ($access->canPublish)
// {
// Publishers, admins, etc just get the stock msg
$msg = JText::_('Item successfully saved.');
// }
// else
// {
// $msg = $isNew ? JText::_('THANK_SUB') : JText::_('Item successfully saved.');
// }

For the second file change a zero to one on line 332 or thereabouts. This opens the gate to authors.
// For new items - author is not allowed to publish - prevent them from doing so
$article->state = 1;

:), that;s it fellas!

ffmpeg is cool!!! :)

What can i say about ffmpeg? This tool makes my life so much easier in terms of converting media into your desire files extension. No need to twist your head again and spend your tones of time to search free apps or shareware apps to convert your media.

By the way ffmpeg is a free software / open source project that produces libraries and programs for handling multimedia data and publishes them under the GNU Lesser General Public License or GNU General Public License (depending on which options are enabled). The most notable parts of FFmpeg are libavcodec, an audio/video codec library used by several other projects, libavformat, an audio/video container mux and demux library, and the ffmpeg command line program for transcoding multimedia files.

Below are a bunch of ffmpeg command lines that will do just about everything you need.

1. If you want to get an info about your media/videos issues the following command :-

# ffmpeg -i name_of_videos.avi

2. If you want to turn a sequence of images into video, then :-

# ffmpeg -f image2 -i image%d.jpg video.mpg

3. Turn a video into a sequence of images, then :-

# ffmpeg -i video.mpg image%d.jpg

4. Encode your video for Ipod/IPhone

# ffmpeg -i source_video_file.avi -acodec aac -ab 128kb -vcodec mpeg4 -b 1200kb -mbd 2 -flags +4mv -trell 1 -aic 2 -cmp 2 -subcmp 2 -s 320x180 -title X output_file.mp4

5. Encode your video for PSP

# ffmpeg -i source_video_file.avi -b 300 -s 320x240 -vcodec xvid -ab 32 -ar 24000 -acodec aac output_file.mp4

you can try this commmand :-

# ffmpeg -i "OriginalFile.avi" -f psp -r 29.97 -b 768k -ar 24000 -ab 64k -s 320x240 "OutputFile.mp4"

6. Extract audio from a video file and save it as mp3 format

# ffmpeg -i source_video_file.avi -vn -ar 44100 -ac 2 -ab 192 -f mp3 output_file.mp3

7. Convert a wave file to mp3

# ffmpeg -i original_audio_file.avi -vn -ar 44100 -ac 2 -ab 192 -f mp3 output_file.mp3

8. Convert a avi video to mpeg

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi output_file.mpg

9. Convert a mpeg video to avi

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.mpg output_file.avi

10. Convert a avi video to uncompressed animated gif

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi output_file.gif

11. Add audio to an existing video-only file (mix audio and video)

# ffmpeg -i son.wav -i original_movie.avi output_file.mpg

12. Convert a avi video to flv (flash video)

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi -ab 56 -ar 44100 -b 200 -r 15 -s 320x240 -f flv output_file.flv

13. Convert a flv video to mpeg

# ffmpeg -i myFile.flv -ab 56 -ar 22050 -b 500 -s 320x240 myFile.mpg

14. Convert a avi video to dv

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi -s ntsc -r ntsc -aspect 4:3 -ar 48000 -ac 2 output_file.dv

15. Convert a avi video to mpeg specifically for DVD creation

# ffmpeg -i source_video.avi -target ntsc-dvd -ps 2000000000 -aspect 16:9 finale_video.mpeg

16. Compress a avi video to Divx

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi -s 320x240 -vcodec msmpeg4v2 output_file.avi

17. Convert a Ogg Theora video to mpeg specifically for DVD creation

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.ogm -s 720x576 -vcodec mpeg2video -acodec mp3 output_file.mpg

18. Convert a avi video to mpeg2 for SVCD creation

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi -target ntsc-svcd output_file.mpg

19. Convert a avi video to mpeg2 for VCD creation

# ffmpeg -i original_movie.avi -target ntsc-vcd output_file.mpg


Sunday, July 11, 2010

Downloading youtube videos without 3rd party plug-ins.

:) Another lazy Sunday morning.

But i've got a beautiful trick about how to download youtube videos without any 3rd party plug-ins installed. This trick can be achieved only using Ubuntu desktop edition. I'm using Ubuntu Lucid Lynx 10.04. Maybe this trick can be applied to other linux variants. So if you're using windows, just ignore this trick :)

OK, now get online and open your lovely browser firefox. Get in into your youtube videos. Just let it stream till end. After that, go to your filesystem and browse to your temp directory. There's one *.flv or even *.mp4 file in it. Copy and save it to your preferred directory and you're done!

:) this is so simple and no need to think about plug-ins!

NOte: for ubuntu users, if you want to use plug-ins to download youtube videos, try "unplug" for firefox.

Wednesday, July 7, 2010

Iphone 2g : Jailbreak iPhone OS 3.1.3 Firmware with RedSn0w [ windows ]

Hi jailbreakers! :)

If you're in the great mood to do some extreme part, then kindly read on. I'm writing this article/howto for the iphone 2g fans. :) The iPhone OS 3.1.3 firmware updates the Baseband of your iPhone 3GS and 3G hence making it impossible to unlock these device using BlackSn0w installed via BlackRa1n. Fortunately iPhone 2G users are on the safe side in case of unlock because iPhone 2G Baseband remain intact while updating to iPhone firmware 3.1.3 (provided that you have jailbroken it previously at least once).

MuscleNerd from the Dev-team has confirmed that using RedSn0w 0.9.3 you can jailbreak iPhone OS 3.1.3 on the following devices:

* jailbreak iPhone 3G 3.1.3 (but cannot unlock)
* jailbreak iPhone 2G 3.1.3 (can unlock as well)
* jailbreak iPod Touch 2G (non-MC model only)
* jailbreak iPod Touch 1G

If you're in the iOS4, then no need for you to read this article on. Hahahhaaa

All right, let's move on.
Disclaimer: Follow this guide at your own risk. I can’t be help responsible if ANYTHING goes wrong.
Step 1

* Download iTunes 9.0.3 and install it.
* Download RedSn0w 0.9.3 (Windows)
* Download Firmware 3.1.3 for your device
* Download Firmware 3.1.2 for your device (Yes, OS 3.1.2 as well)
* Download Bootloaders (for iPhone 2G unlock ONLY)

note : remember not to use the latest version of itunes for this to happen. you'll encounter problems then.

Extract the RedSn0w & Bootloaders archive and put the them and firmware IPSW files (iPhone firmware 3.1.3 and iPhone firmware 3.1.2) into a folder on your desktop.

Step 2

Open the iTunes, select your device from the left navigation pane.

Hold down the SHIFT key on Windows and hit the Restore button in iTunes. Navigate to the downloaded firmware 3.1.3 for your device and select the firmware file (.ipsw) and hit Open.

iTunes will start restoring your iPhone firmware to iPhone OS 3.1.3.

Step 3

Once your iPhone is updates to OS 3.1.3, run the downloaded RedSn0w file.

Step 4

Hit the Browse button and provide it the downloaded firmware 3.1.2 file NOT 3.1.3 because RedSn0w 0.9.3 will not recognize iPhone OS 3.1.3.

Step 5

RedSn0w will verify your firmware file. Once done, hit the Next button.

Step 6 (for iPhone 2G users ONLY. Others please skip to Step 7)

To unlock iPhone 2G, select Install Cydia and Unlock options and provide the bootloader files.
If you just want to jailbreak iPhone 2G 3.1.3 then choose Install Cydia and hit next.

Step 7

On the next screen, check mark your desired options. For the purpose of this guide just choose Install Cydia and hit next. Select custom logos if you want them too. Hit Next.

Step 8

Read the on screen instructions to put your iPhone into DFU Mode.Once you’ve entered into DFU Mode, RedSn0w will do its work and on successful completion, your iPhone will reboot.

You have successfully jailbreak iPhone 2G 3.1.3 and iPhone 3G 3.1.3.

Note :- I strongly recommend iPhone 3GS and 3G users to stay away from iPhone OS 3.1.3 until unless iPhone Dev Team or GeoHotz come up with updated jailbreak and unlock tool. However, you can always jailbreak iPhone OS 3.1.2 using Custom Firmware, RedSn0w, PwnageTool, Sn0wBreeze, BlackRa1n and unlock iPhone OS 3.1.2 using UltraSn0w and BlackSn0w.

Monday, July 5, 2010

How to Create Bootable Linux USB Flash/Pen Drive from Windows

Most of the popular Linux distributions these days offer live cd so that you can feel how their distribution feels before you can install it on your computer. If you're booting Linux using live CD the system takes ages to boot and applications installed feel sluggish as the optical drive offers lower data transfer rates. But if the same live cd is copied to a USB drive and made bootable then the system feels real fast as if you are booting from a hard disk drive.

There are several ways in which you can create bootable Linux drive, some of them requires lot of steps to be followed. In this post we see how we can create a bootable Linux USB drive from within Windows.


1. Windows XP or Windows Vista based host operating computer

2. USB Flash/Pen drive.

3. Get Universal USB Installer from

4. A computer that is capable for booting from USB devices.

How to Create Bootable Linux USB Flash/Pen Drive

1. Download the version of Linux that you wish to install in USB drive. In this post we have taken Ubuntu 9.10 ISO file that we downloaded from Internet.

2. Open the Universal USB Installer, click run when prompted.

3. If the security dialog appears, confirm by clicking 'Run'

4. Read the licence agreement and choose 'I Agree' to continue

5. Select Ubuntu Desktop Edition from the dropdown list

6. Click 'Browse' and open the downloaded ISO file

7. Choose the USB drive and click 'Create'

8. Wait till it's finish.

note : make sure your safely remove your thumb drive after it's done.
note : you also can try using UNetbootin software to replace Universal USB Installer.

Now you're ready to bring along your favourite linux OS into your thumb drive wherever you go! :)

Changing your default apache publishing directory

Hi, :)

Always change the default setting. That's a word my friend always told me. Ok now i will show you how to edit the default apache 2 publishing directory. By the way, this howto is on ubuntu 10.04 server edition. It can be applied to ubuntu 9.10, 9.04, 8.10 and 8.04. NOt so sure for the older version of it.

Ubuntu have its own way to manage the apache files. They splitted httpd files into files called mods_available, sites_available and so on. That means, there's no single file named httpd.conf anymore.All that files stored nicely at /etc/apache2/

From our default installation for LAMP Server, our website or apps will be stored at /var/www/. Almost every version of ubuntu is the same. NOw for extra security, we need to change this directory to our own directory. Here is how i done it :-

# ssh into your server, for example :- ssh -l dzul

# after successfully login, switch to root by issuing the following command ,

sudo su
and enter your password once again

you're now root!
then cd to /etc/apache2 dir
then go directory name sites_available

now, make sure you have two files on it, which is default and default-ssl

we need to edit the default file, so at the terminal :-

# nano default
[nano is the editor, it is up to you to use other editor like vi or vim.]

make some changes there.

let say you wanted to host your file at /var/web/dzul then you the change the line /var/www to /var/web/dzul

ctrl+x to save

now make your directory under /var

# mkdir web
# cd web
# mkdir dzul
# cd dzul
# pwd
# /var/web/dzul
now your /var/web/dzul is created.

it's time to restart the apache service.

# /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

If there's no errors, you're successfully make changes of ubuntu apache default publishing directory. Get your files and dump it into /var/web/dzul

But before that you need to chown and chmod user dzul to use that directory. Remember, ONLY root can access everything in your system. To accomplish that, issue the following command :-

# chown root:dzul /var/web/dzul/
# chmod g+w /var/web/dzul/

now you're ready to rock!

Installing phpmyadmin on ubuntu server 10.04 lucid lynx

This is a simplest steps. Ubuntu always simple as you like. :)

Ssh into your server :-

for exmple :- ssh -l dzul
enter your password and issue the following cmd :-

# sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin
just follow the instructions

select the webserver which is apache.

enter the password, same as your mysql root password from your installation before.

after that, go to your browser, and enter


Setting Up Webserver using Ubuntu 10.04 [part 3]

Now you're just installed a webserver with ssh at ubuntu 10.04. So what to do next? Are you feel safe enough running your apps/website with this default installation. Please don't.

We need to make your server/system running in maximum security before you can get into out of space! :)

We have SSH installed. That means you can manage your server remotely. [Make sure your Firewall allow your passage to get there].You may say that you're installing a fresh and new ubuntu system, but we need to upgrade first. login in your server using SSH. :-

# ssh -l dzul

at the terminal, get into root privileges by issuing the "sudo su" and enter your password once again

after that :-

# apt-get upgrade
# apt-get update

and then follow my previous article about hardening ubuntu 9.04 here :-

if you're successfully done that, give your peace of mind to get online.

note : hardening your system is a ingoing process, so explore your system well and check for open port regularly.

Setting Up Webserver using Ubuntu 10.04 [part 2]

10. Now you have to partition your hard disk. For simplicity's sake I select Guided - use entire disk - if you know what you're doing, you can also set up your partitions manually).

note : i always use guided - use entire disk [without to setup any LVM] I'll tell you why later in the other post. :)

11.Select the disk that you want to partition.

13.When you're finished, hit Yes when you're asked Write the changes to disks?

14.Afterwards, your new partitions are being created and formatted.

15. Now the base system is being installed.

16.Create a user, for example the user dzul with the user name dzul (don't use the user name admin as it is a reserved name on Ubuntu 10.04) and you'll be asked to make a password for that user. Enter your desire password with strong combination of chars. :)

17. I don't need an encrypted private directory, so I choose No here.

18. Next the package manager apt gets configured. Leave the HTTP proxy line empty unless you're using a proxy server to connect to the Internet. In my case, i have no proxy server to get online. By the way, apt-get is a package manager for ubuntu.

18. I like to update my package manually due to contraints of my apps, therefore I select No automatic updates. Of course, it's up to you what you select here. If you're lazy enough, then select automatic update.

19. I just need a LAMP Serevr and OpenSSH Server. Then continue.

20. Then installation continue, and prompting you a password for you to administer your mysql dabatase. Enter your password and continue.

21. The last past is just to get your installation complete by setting up GRUB bootloader.Select Yes when you are asked Install the GRUB boot loader to the master boot record?

22. If somehow it fail, go to plan B and try to use older boot loader which LILO. LILO is never fail, trust me but it loads more memory for booting up your machine.

23. The base system installation is now finished. Remove the installation CD from the CD drive and hit Continue to reboot the system.

Now you have successfully installed webserver using ubuntu 10.04. It's a ready to get online now, but i recommend to make some hardening first and do a post-installation configuration. Continue your reading to part 3 of this tutorial...

Setting Up Webserver using Ubuntu 10.04 [part 1]

Good day.This tutorial shows how to set up an Ubuntu Lucid Lynx (Ubuntu 10.04) server that offers all services needed by ISPs and hosters: Apache web server (SSL-capable), Postfix mail server with SMTP-AUTH and TLS, BIND DNS server, Proftpd FTP server, MySQL server, Courier POP3/IMAP, Quota, Firewall, etc. In the end you should have a system that works reliably, and if you like you can install the free webhosting control panel ISPConfig 2 (i.e., ISPConfig runs on it out of the box).

But in this tutorial, i just show you how to install apache/mysql/php in your server. Maybe i'll write another article to cover it up. :) Also i'll show a little configuration after installation before you can get your webpage online safely.

Ok let get started here :-

To install such a system you will need the following:

* the Ubuntu 10.04 server CD, available here: (i386) or (x86_64)

Just download that iso file and burn it into a blank cd or dvd.

Before you can go to installation process, make sure you have an IP address for your server.

NOw follow the steps below:-

1. Insert your Ubuntu install CD/DVD into your system and boot from it. If your machine your recognise it, you must check and make sure your boot sequence is reading CD or DVD in a first place.

2. Select your language.

3.Then select Install Ubuntu Server:

4.Choose your language again (? why ubuntu asking your language again):

5. Then select your location:

6. Choose a keyboard layout (you will be asked to press a few keys, and the installer will try to detect your keyboard layout based on the keys you pressed):

Note: I always ignoring this options and just set my keyboard layout to follow US type of keyboard. For Malaysia users, it is ok.

7.The installer checks the installation CD, your hardware, and configures the network with DHCP if there is a DHCP server in the network:

If you're not using dhcp, you need to set up manually your network setting. Choose manually and add your ip address accordingly.

8. Enter the hostname. In this example, my system is called, so I enter testing

9. Please check if the installer detected your time zone correctly. If so, select Yes, otherwise No. If your time zone is zero, that means your system have no time zone. You need to select no and make some changes to get the right time zone for you.

///to be continued...

Sunday, July 4, 2010

Unlock almost all nokia models security code

Good day. This is a nice article i ever wrote. Unlocking is not legal thing to do. So you may take your own risk. What happen when you lost your security mobile phone code. If your mobile phone is nokia, this article maybe can help you. :) By the way, nokia security code is the one you may need when it's come for you to reset your phone setting to the original or to the factory setting. Some may need it to format the phone. Master reset and soft reset. The default is always give you a pleasure with 1234 or 12345 combination of numbers. But if someone has changed it, and you'll not be able to do master or soft reset your phone.

So if this happened, there's a simple and free way to get it done. NO need to get to nokia service centre. It will cost you a penny or more. Or maybe much more....hahaaa

Just get your IMEI, the 15 long numbers from the back of your mobile phone, which is also you can get it by hitting *#06# . And go to this website :-

enter your imei there, and it will generate the security master code for you for free!!!

so what to do next?

NOw enter your security master code when your phone prompt the code. It will overwrite your old/current security code. Now it depend on you to set a new security code for your phone! :)

Streamyx dns

The following are streamyx dns ip address for the rest of malaysia users. Give it a try which is suite for you.... :) thanks to my friend, razlan.

change your dns setting to the ip above to test which one give you more speed. viola...

Hardening your Apache and PHP on Ubuntu 9.04 Server

You have installed LAMP and OpenSSH on your Ubuntu 9.04 Server. The first thing to do is to harden it in order to avoid some kind of attacks. You can do the following steps in front of your Ubuntu 9.04 Server or remote access it via OpenSSH.

For OpenSSH, your Ubuntu 9.04 Server is at :
ssh -l dzul

Step 1 :

The avoid someone to list your files on your Apache directory, you should do the following step.
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/default

Add a minus "-" in the front of "Indexes" and it will looking like this :

    Options -Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
    AllowOverride None
    Order allow,deny
    allow from all

Step 2 :

To enable the rewrite module of Apache.
sudo a2enmod rewrite

To avoid Cross-Site-Tracing attack. Add the following lines within " " :

    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteRule .* - [F]

Step 3 :

To avoid HTTP DoS, DDoS or Brute Force attack, you should install this module.
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-evasive

Step 4 :

To screen out bad URL requests, such as /etc/shadow or MySQL injection and etc. You should install mod_security module. If you installed a amd64 (64-bit) version of Ubuntu Server, please replaced i386 with amd64 for the following commands.


sudo dpkg -i libapache-mod-security_2.5.9-1_i386.deb mod-security-common_2.5.9-1_all.deb

Step 5 :

Do not allow any Apache and Ubuntu Server information to be print on the error pages.
sudo nano /etc/apache2/conf.d/security

Change the following lines as the following :
ServerToken Prod
ServerSignature Off

Step 6 :

Now, it is time to harden the PHP.
sudo nano /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini

Change the following lines as the following :

display_errors = Off
log_errors = On
allow_url_fopen = Off
safe_mode = On
expose_php = Off
enable_dl = Off
disable_functions = system, show_source, symlink, exec, dl, shell_exec, passthru, phpinfo, escapeshellarg, escapeshellcmd

Step 7 :

Final step is to restart Apache server.
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Step 8 :
sudo nano /etc/sysctl.conf
Uncomment the following line and make it look like this.
#Enable TCP SYN Cookie Protection
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

Make the change active.
sudo /sbin/sysctl -p

note:- can be applied to ubuntu 9.10 and ubuntu 10.04 too.
if you want to change the publishing dir which is default to /var/www/, make sure you set the permission it nicely.

I'm losing my root password

The title says it all. So bad. I don't want to run the installation again because i need all the data. It is become worst from the previous installation there is only one user which is root! So you need just root password to gain access to the systems.

My systems is RedHAt ES 5. In order to achieve my goal to get into this systems is try to run this machine using linux single mode. Follow the steps below :-

- To boot into single-user mode from GRUB, do the following from
the GRUB menu screen:

1. Select the desired kernel.

2. Press the 'e' key to edit that entry.

3. Use the arrow keys to navigate to the kernel line
(for example: kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.x-x ro root=/dev/hdx2)

4. Press the 'e' key to edit the line.

5. Add the argument 'single' to the end of the line and
press return.

6. Press the 'b' key to boot.

If everything goes well, you'll be able to issue the "passwd" command at the prompt and you'll be asked to make a new password.

NOte :- If you are using LILO, at the LILO boot prompt (if you are using the graphical LILO, you must press [Ctrl]-[x] to exit the graphical screen and go to the boot: prompt) type:

linux single

That's it! :D

Command line is everything... :)

Don't know about you. But for me linux command line is everything. Last a couple of weeks, i busy with server migration. Upgrading to new version of Ubuntu is not so hard to do. The tedious part is that to back up your data and put it up again. You'll be facing some of issues that your new server is restricted here and there. You'll be stuck at permissions and so on.

Getting the server up and running is just a simple thing to do. After done with some hardening, than you need to put your data back in to online. Most of the times i'll be using phpmyadmin to import my data back to the new server. I ran into problems....

Importing large amount of data failed due to constraints from your php.ini files. If you're not going to edit this file, you actually can do it by linux command line!!! :). SSH to your new server, upload that *.sql file[s] to your new server. Get to terminal as root and issue this command :-

# mysqldump -u username -p database_name > database_name.sql

enter the passwrd and you're done. :)

Hack and crack that WEP keys!

You don't have to be an IT expert to be able to make use of your neighbour's security enabled Wifi network. Are you kidding me? Hahahaahha... it's true. I've done a couple times. Please read on as i tell you how to do it. Pretty dead simple.

What you need is just a single Dvd with Back Track 3 or 4 installed. So get your copy from . Burn it into cd/dvd.

Make sure u have a laptop with wireless card that support monitor mode. Most of modern laptop have capability to monitor packets. Boot up your laptop with dvd/cdrom. Wait until u get prompt by back track. Type startx to get started.

Now you're ready to rock! :) get your terminal and set your card to monitor mode :-

# iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor

note :- in my case, my Interface is wlan0, yours maybe different

then issue the following cmd :-

# airodump wlan0 /tmp/dump

# aireplay -2 wlan0

just wait for 5 to 10 min or more to get better amount of captured data.

hit control + c to stop the aireplay


# aircrack /tmp/dump_01.cap

if everything goes well, the encryption keys is now yours! :)

This steps can't be applied to WPA,WPA2 PSK due to lack of dictionary contents.

Saturday, July 3, 2010

Ubuntu 10.04 is called lucid lynx

Good day everyone. I've been using linux for a long times now. I'm not using linux distros for my desktop yet until the release of ubuntu 10.04. They called it as a Ubuntu Lucid Lynx. Cool. :)

I'm not encouraging you to use this distro without knowing what is the ubuntu lucid lynx actually. What is Ubuntu? Come on you must heard this word somewhere. Ubuntu, an operating system based on Debian GNU/Linux, makes two releases every year, using the year and month of the release as a version number. The first Ubuntu release, for example, was Ubuntu 4.10 and was released on 20 October 2004. Consequently, version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed until a different month to that planned, the version number changes accordingly.

Ubuntu releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases, which are in turn about one month after releases of X.Org, resulting in each Ubuntu release including a newer version of GNOME and X. To date every fourth release, in the second quarter of even-numbered years, has been designated as a Long Term Support (LTS) release, indicating that it has updates for three years for desktop use and five years for server, with paid technical support also available from Canonical Ltd.. Releases 6.06, 8.04, and 10.04 are the LTS releases.

Ubuntu releases are also given code names, using an adjective and an animal with the same first letter (e.g. Dapper Drake). With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer. Commonly, Ubuntu releases are often referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name (e.g. Dapper).

So.. that's a brief of ubuntu. I got my first hand with ubuntu when i stucked with redhat es 4. The depencies and RHNetworks won't recognise me anymore... that's a little shame for REd HAT. I took a drastic action to start from zero. Then i took the iso images from the net, surprisingly, this distro won't take me long to understand. I like tis distro better than others.